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Cold Fuson

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In a review paper published in Nature on Monday , U. Like many other outside researchers, the Google team hasn't found evidence of the phenomenon as originally described.

However, since , their efforts have yielded three preprints and 10 peer-reviewed publications, including the latest review, that are offering new insights into key materials and that have improved measurement techniques at high temperatures and pressures.

With these advances in hand, the team says that there's much more basic science to do—research that likely hasn't gotten done because of its relation to cold fusion.

Though the work may well raise eyebrows, Google was aware of the risks. Two of the review's coauthors, Google engineers Ross Koningstein and David Fork, have argued that to deliver meaningful innovation in the energy sector , 70 percent of research funding should flow to core technologies, 20 percent should be dedicated to cutting-edge research, and 10 percent should back high-risk ideas that just might work—like cold fusion.

Whether their experiments yield an energy breakthrough, the research team hopes they've provided cover for young researchers and government funding agencies to reconsider this area of science with an open mind.

Inside the sun, hydrogen atoms fuse to produce helium and energy. If successfully harnessed on Earth, fusion could provide humankind with abundant, emissions-free energy—a huge boon to efforts to combat climate change.

As a byproduct, fusion on Earth might also help to address a global helium shortage. But getting fusion to work on Earth is tricky , since it's hard to get two nuclei close enough to combine; atomic nuclei are positively charged, so they fiercely repel one another, a hurdle known as the Coulomb barrier.

Crossing this barrier and realizing fusion power is possible at high densities and temperatures, if the nuclei are confined for a sufficiently long time.

But to achieve these conditions, scientists seem to need large, expensive machines and huge amounts of initial power.

The interior of ITER, a fusion reactor being built in France, will need to reach million degrees Fahrenheit to ignite fusion—a full ten times hotter than the sun's core.

But what if cleverly structured materials could somehow lower the energy needed for fusion? The duo ran electricity through a rod of palladium in so-called heavy water, a form of water where the hydrogen atoms are replaced with hydrogen's heavier sibling deuterium.

At a press conference on March 23, , Fleischmann and Pons announced that their setup emitted hundreds of times more heat than the chemistry could account for.

Their interpretation: Deuterium nuclei within the palladium were fusing. The news made headlines around the world. Had humankind's energy woes been solved once and for all?

On March 23, , University of Utah chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced their "cold fusion" device to the world—sparking a scientific firestorm.

But for many, excitement quickly gave way to skepticism. Sign Up. That's it! Thank you for subscribing to our newsletter!

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Training Videos. Nevertheless, Fleischmann and Pons and a number of other researchers who found positive results remained convinced of their findings.

The Times called it a circus the same day, and the Boston Herald attacked cold fusion the following day. On 1 May the American Physical Society held a session on cold fusion in Baltimore, including many reports of experiments that failed to produce evidence of cold fusion.

At the end of the session, eight of the nine leading speakers stated that they considered the initial Fleischmann and Pons claim dead, with the ninth, Johann Rafelski , abstaining.

Koonin of Caltech called the Utah report a result of " the incompetence and delusion of Pons and Fleischmann, " which was met with a standing ovation.

Morrison , a physicist representing CERN , was the first to call the episode an example of pathological science.

On 4 May, due to all this new criticism, the meetings with various representatives from Washington were cancelled.

In July and November , Nature published papers critical of cold fusion claims. The United States Department of Energy organized a special panel to review cold fusion theory and research.

Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require established conjecture, perhaps even theory itself, to be extended in an unexpected way.

The panel was against special funding for cold fusion research, but supported modest funding of "focused experiments within the general funding system".

In March Michael H. Salamon, a physicist from the University of Utah , and nine co-authors reported negative results.

The lawyer later apologized; Fleischmann defended the threat as a legitimate reaction to alleged bias displayed by cold-fusion critics.

On 30 June the National Cold Fusion Institute closed after it ran out of funds; [71] it found no excess heat, and its reports of tritium production were met with indifference.

Mostly in the s, several books were published that were critical of cold fusion research methods and the conduct of cold fusion researchers.

A review by a cold fusion proponent had calculated "about scientists" were still conducting research. These small but committed groups of cold fusion researchers have continued to conduct experiments using Fleischmann and Pons electrolysis setups in spite of the rejection by the mainstream community.

A group of scientists at well-known research labs e. Their reported conclusion: no cold fusion. Cold fusion research continues today [ when?

The researchers who continue acknowledge that the flaws in the original announcement are the main cause of the subject's marginalization, and they complain of a chronic lack of funding [85] and no possibilities of getting their work published in the highest impact journals.

A pariah field, cast out by the scientific establishment. Between cold fusion and respectable science there is virtually no communication at all.

Cold fusion papers are almost never published in refereed scientific journals, with the result that those works don't receive the normal critical scrutiny that science requires.

On the other hand, because the Cold-Fusioners see themselves as a community under siege, there is little internal criticism. Experiments and theories tend to be accepted at face value, for fear of providing even more fuel for external critics, if anyone outside the group was bothering to listen.

In these circumstances, crackpots flourish, making matters worse for those who believe that there is serious science going on here.

In August , the U. Hagelstein , [91] : 3 and the publication of many new papers, including the Italian ENEA and other researchers in the International Cold Fusion Conference, [92] and a two-volume book by U.

The report was released in The reviewers were "split approximately evenly" on whether the experiments had produced energy in the form of heat, but "most reviewers, even those who accepted the evidence for excess power production, 'stated that the effects are not repeatable, the magnitude of the effect has not increased in over a decade of work, and that many of the reported experiments were not well documented.

While significant progress has been made in the sophistication of calorimeters since the review of this subject in , the conclusions reached by the reviewers today are similar to those found in the review.

The current reviewers identified a number of basic science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the controversies in the field, two of which were: 1 material science aspects of deuterated metals using modern characterization techniques, and 2 the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods.

The reviewers believed that this field would benefit from the peer-review processes associated with proposal submission to agencies and paper submission to archival journals.

Cold fusion researchers placed a "rosier spin" [93] on the report, noting that they were finally being treated like normal scientists, and that the report had increased interest in the field and caused "a huge upswing in interest in funding cold fusion research.

The grant was intended to support research into the interactions of hydrogen with palladium, nickel or platinum under extreme conditions.

Hubler, a nuclear physicist who worked for the Naval Research Laboratory for 40 years, was named director. He claims that the new experiment has already seen "neutron emissions at similar levels to the observation".

Since the Fleischmann and Pons announcement, the Italian national agency for new technologies, energy and sustainable economic development ENEA has funded Franco Scaramuzzi's research into whether excess heat can be measured from metals loaded with deuterium gas.

In —, the ENEA started a research program which claimed to have found excess power of up to percent, and in , ENEA hosted the 15th cold fusion conference.

We can't find any reason to propose more money for the coming year or for the future. In the s India stopped its research in cold fusion at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre because of the lack of consensus among mainstream scientists and the US denunciation of the research.

Electrolysis cells can be either open cell or closed cell. In open cell systems, the electrolysis products, which are gaseous, are allowed to leave the cell.

In closed cell experiments, the products are captured, for example by catalytically recombining the products in a separate part of the experimental system.

These experiments generally strive for a steady state condition, with the electrolyte being replaced periodically. There are also "heat-after-death" experiments, where the evolution of heat is monitored after the electric current is turned off.

The most basic setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy water. The electrodes are then connected to a power source to transmit electricity from one electrode to the other through the solution.

The Fleischmann and Pons early findings regarding helium, neutron radiation and tritium were never replicated satisfactorily, and its levels were too low for the claimed heat production and inconsistent with each other.

An excess heat observation is based on an energy balance. Various sources of energy input and output are continuously measured. Under normal conditions, the energy input can be matched to the energy output to within experimental error.

In experiments such as those run by Fleischmann and Pons, an electrolysis cell operating steadily at one temperature transitions to operating at a higher temperature with no increase in applied current.

Unable to produce excess heat or neutrons, and with positive experiments being plagued by errors and giving disparate results, most researchers declared that heat production was not a real effect and ceased working on the experiments.

Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ballistic trajectories.

In support of their claim that nuclear reactions took place in their electrolytic cells, Fleischmann and Pons reported a neutron flux of 4, neutrons per second, as well as detection of tritium.

The classical branching ratio for previously known fusion reactions that produce tritium would predict, with 1 watt of power, the production of 10 12 neutrons per second, levels that would have been fatal to the researchers.

Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported as detected by several researchers, like Tadahiko Mizuno or George Miley.

The report presented to the United States Department of Energy DOE in indicated that deuterium-loaded foils could be used to detect fusion reaction products and, although the reviewers found the evidence presented to them as inconclusive, they indicated that those experiments did not use state-of-the-art techniques.

In response to doubts about the lack of nuclear products, cold fusion researchers have tried to capture and measure nuclear products correlated with excess heat.

In the report presented to the DOE in , the reviewers' opinion was divided on the evidence for 4 He; with the most negative reviews concluding that although the amounts detected were above background levels, they were very close to them and therefore could be caused by contamination from air.

One of the main criticisms of cold fusion was that deuteron-deuteron fusion into helium was expected to result in the production of gamma rays —which were not observed and were not observed in subsequent cold fusion experiments.

Researchers in the field do not agree on a theory for cold fusion. This creates a high partial pressure, reducing the average separation of hydrogen isotopes.

However, the reduction in separation is not enough by a factor of ten to create the fusion rates claimed in the original experiment. Electron screening of the positive hydrogen nuclei by the negative electrons in the palladium lattice was suggested to the DOE commission, [] but the panel found the theoretical explanations not convincing and inconsistent with current physics theories.

Criticism of cold fusion claims generally take one of two forms: either pointing out the theoretical implausibility that fusion reactions have occurred in electrolysis setups or criticizing the excess heat measurements as being spurious, erroneous, or due to poor methodology or controls.

There are a couple of reasons why known fusion reactions are an unlikely explanation for the excess heat and associated cold fusion claims.

Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another. Paneth and Peters in the s already knew that palladium can absorb up to times its own volume of hydrogen gas, storing it at several thousands of times the atmospheric pressure.

This was also the belief of geologist Palmer, who convinced Steven Jones that the helium-3 occurring naturally in Earth perhaps came from fusion involving hydrogen isotopes inside catalysts like nickel and palladium.

Huizenga says they had misinterpreted the Nernst equation , leading them to believe that there was enough pressure to bring deuterons so close to each other that there would be spontaneous fusions.

Conventional deuteron fusion is a two-step process, [text 6] in which an unstable high-energy intermediary is formed:. Experiments have observed only three decay pathways for this excited-state nucleus, with the branching ratio showing the probability that any given intermediate follows a particular pathway.

Only about one in one million of the intermediaries decay along the third pathway, making its products comparatively rare when compared to the other paths.

The known rate of the decay process together with the inter-atomic spacing in a metallic crystal makes heat transfer of the 24 MeV excess energy into the host metal lattice prior to the intermediary 's decay inexplicable in terms of conventional understandings of momentum and energy transfer, [] and even then there would be measurable levels of radiation.

Cold fusion setups utilize an input power source to ostensibly provide activation energy , a platinum group electrode , a deuterium or hydrogen source, a calorimeter , and, at times, detectors to look for byproducts such as helium or neutrons.

Critics have variously taken issue with each of these aspects and have asserted that there has not yet been a consistent reproduction of claimed cold fusion results in either energy output or byproducts.

Some cold fusion researchers who claim that they can consistently measure an excess heat effect have argued that the apparent lack of reproducibility might be attributable to a lack of quality control in the electrode metal or the amount of hydrogen or deuterium loaded in the system.

Critics have further taken issue with what they describe as mistakes or errors of interpretation that cold fusion researchers have made in calorimetry analyses and energy budgets.

In , after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, without success.

A few other research groups, however, reported successful reproductions of cold fusion during this time. Iyengar and M. Groups that did report successes found that some of their cells were producing the effect, while other cells that were built exactly the same and used the same materials were not producing the effect.

The claims of cold fusion, however, are unusual in that even the strongest proponents of cold fusion assert that the experiments, for unknown reasons, are not consistent and reproducible at the present time.

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The plot of The Saint , a action-adventure film, parallels the story of Fleischmann and Pons, although with a different ending. Despite the secret being lost with his death at the end of the episode, it is implied that another student elsewhere is on a similar track, and may well repeat Todtman's efforts.

In the Spider-Man episode "Dr. Octopus: Armed and Dangerous," Dr. Octavius's lifelong goal was to create a cold fusion reaction in a battery, to serve as an alternate energy source to nuclear reactors.

However, his attempts to do so resulted in a catastrophic explosion, fusing the robotic tentacles he was using to perform his experiments to his spine, turning him into Dr.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Fleischmann—Pons claims of nuclear fusion at room temperature, and subsequent research.

For the original use of the term "cold fusion", see Muon-catalyzed fusion. For all other definitions, see Cold fusion disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Cold welding. Hypothetical type of nuclear reaction. Beaudette , p. Oriani et al. This had been in the scientific literature since It seems that the electrical conductivity of heavy water with lithium is considerably less than that of light water with lithium.

And this difference is more than enough to account for the heavy water cell running hotter Langmuir , pp. It has also been applied to the number of published results, in Huizenga , pp.

Sources: " Burden on the Examiner. Durham , Patent law essentials: a concise guide 2nd, illustrated ed. Sheldon , How to write a patent application illustrated ed.

We realise that the results reported here raise more questions than they provide answers Daley calculates between and researchers, with damage to their careers.

Archived from the original on 3 November Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Van Siclen and S. Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J.

G: Nucl. Bibcode : Natur. Barnes on 13 and 26 June ". The Caltech Institute Archives. Retrieved 22 August J 29 June , "Measurement of gamma-rays from cold fusion letter by Fleischmann et al.

Archived from the original on 26 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 27 November Skeptical Inquirer.

Amherst, NY: Center for Inquiry. Prelas, Eric Lukosi. Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 18 May Archived PDF from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 21 January Current Science.

Archived from the original on 5 August A , Close , pp. The cell is calibrated Archived from the original on 23 December Archived from the original PDF on 31 July Retrieved 31 October Anyone can deliver a paper.

Wholly inoperative inventions; "incredible" utility" , U. Archived from the original on 13 February — via www. Another computer scientist translated an old article in the Swedish technical journal Ny Teknika.

Taubes says: " Ny Teknika seemed to believe that Tandberg had missed on the discovery of the century, done in by an ignorant patent bureau.

When Pons heard the story, he agreed. The department had had its laboratory administrators send emissaries to Washington immediately.

The government laboratories had free reign [ sic ] to pursue their cold fusion research, Ianniello said, to use whatever resources they needed, and DOE would cover the expenses.

A reason that it is not as well known below this energy because the individual rates are so low. However, the rate is known at room temperature from muon catalysed fusion experiments.

There is no reason to think that these branching ratios would be measurably altered for cold fusion. Materials Characterization: D.

Confinement Pressure, which has a similar explanation. Electrochemical cold fusion is widely considered to be discredited.

Douglas 28 February Bibcode : PhLA.. The phenomenon then separates the scientists in two camps, believers and skeptics. Interest dies as only a small band of believers is able to 'produce the phenomenon' Ackermann, Eric February , "Indicators of failed information epidemics in the scientific journal literature: A publication analysis of Polywater and Cold Nuclear Fusion", Scientometrics , 66 3 : —, doi : Energy panel split over whether experiments produced power" , Nature News , doi : Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cold Fusion.

Hagelstein, Peter L. Cold Fusion? Laurence, William L. E7 Lewenstein, Bruce V. Translated by Costigliola, Chiara Maria. Archived PDF from the original on 13 March In the foreword by the president of ENEA the belief is expressed that the cold fusion phenomenon is proved.

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Dieser Beitrag hat 1 Kommentare

  1. Tygojar

    Sie soll sagen, dass Sie nicht recht sind.

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